The most practical reading of the thousand characters in ancient times is not only able to read and write but also to learn calligraphy.
Mr. Qi Gong once commented on the thousand characters, and said: "the thousand word characters with" heaven and earth Huang "as the starting sentence is of great importance and wide application, and it can win over thousands of ancient and ancient books.
Author: Bruce Lee
Song Huizong and Zhao Jishu's thousand character essay
In addition to being used as a literacy textbook, some ancient books in the ancient times often numbered the characters in the thousand characters, such as "Tripitaka" and "Dao Zang". In addition, there were many arrangements for the examination of business bookkeeping and imperial examinations. Why is "thousand characters" regarded as the most ideal book? In the first week of school, let's learn about the ancient children's enlightenment books.
Emperor Liang Wu's image of Xiao Yan
The origin of thousand characters
Emperor Liang ordered the compilation of Wang Xizhi's calligraphy.
There are many different books about this book. Li Chuo's "Shang Shu Shi Shi" contains: "thousand characters", "Liang Zhou" and "Xing Zhou", but Wang Youjun is not the first to know. It is the book of Liang Wu's book of kings, which makes Yin iron stone unfold a thousand words in the king's book, and every word, piece of paper is broken. When the heir comes up, the temples are white. And the reward is very thick. " After entering the legend, this material evolved into the same way as Wu Zi Xu, who changed from "temples to white" into a night's white head. This is, of course, the custom of increasing folklore. In fact, the possibility of "white on the temples" is not big at night. But behind this statement, it really reflects the admiration of the recipients of the thousand words in the future generations.
In general, historians are more reliable. Yao Silian (557-637 AD) "Liang Shu" carries the cloud: "Gao Zu used the old house of three bridges as the light residence temple, the imperial imperial court and the Lu Ji each system Temple Monument, and the Cheng Ju played, the high Zu uses the heir system. They are "bronze inscription", "Tan Tang Jie", "Northern Expedition" and "rhyme Wang Xizhi thousand characters", and make Xing Si Wen. Here is the thousand words of Wang Xizhi rhyme, which is the predecessor of thousand characters. Yao wrote "Liang Shu", mostly referring to his father Yao cha (533-606) old manuscript. Shi Yizhun, who was twelve years old, was able to write his essay. At the age of thirteen, he was led by Xuan Xiaogang in Xuan Yu hall to listen to lectures. At that time, he was only twenty years away from Zhou Xing Si (A.D. 469-537), and his father's monk was very courteous to Liang Wu Di. So, who wrote the "thousand characters of rhyme Wang Xizhi" here? Mr. Qi Gong has written two articles about the "thousand character script". The general idea is that this article is written for Liang Wu Di, and then he used Wang Xizhi to write a collection of characters.
What is the use of this article by Wu Di, the history book does not elaborate. However, according to the records of "Shang Shu" or "Wei Hua" (801-866 AD), Liu Binke's book of choral records, it was written as a textbook for Xiao Yan, written by Emperor Liang Wu (AD 464-549). It can be seen that Emperor Wu, who is "elegant" and "good at writing", is indeed aware of it. He knows that the harmonious and neat poetic form is of great significance to the realization of Mongolia, which makes Zhou Xingsi "Rhyme", thus making this literacy textbook "heaven and earth Huang Huang" and "universe". The four character long poem of "sun, moon, and moon" is produced, and it radiates great energy in Chinese culture.
Tang Ouyang's book "thousand characters"
The most practical literacy book in ancient times
The selected word is of high utilization rate and can also learn calligraphy.
As a Mongolian book, the primary function of Qian Zi Wen is to teach children to read characters. From a practical point of view, the thousand words chosen are more appropriate in terms of quantity and usage. Literacy is the content that all enlightening readers should have. Like the familiar three character classics and Bai family surnames, it is an enlightening reading that can keep pace with the thousand characters. Why, then, is the thousand character script the most practical Mongolian book?
There are 1068 characters in the three character Scripture, 68 characters more than a thousand words in the thousand characters, but some common words are repeated, such as "22 times", "20", "18" and "12". There are few words in the family name, but only a few surnames will be repeated. But it only has 564 words. Secondly, the words it offers are mostly surnames, not commonly used words, and some children may not be able to use them all their lives. "Thousand characters" is different, it is full of one thousand words, these words basically do not repeat. Some people say that it repeats several words, but in fact it is not appropriate, such as "Yun Teng rain" and "Zen master cloud Pavilion". These two "clouds" are not the same word in ancient times. The former is a cloud of dark clouds. Others are like "hair" and "Ju", "gigantic" and "giant", "Qi" and "Qi", "harmony" and "harmony".
Moreover, these one thousand words are mostly related to the natural environment, social life and history and culture. The usage rate is very high. Using it to read characters can achieve twice the result with half the effort. The thousand characters, but no matter it is used to break up the original word in a thousand words, such as "Tianbao Ying Dao thousand characters" written by the Tang Dynasty Zhou Ti, which is the ten "shame" in the "Feng Shi Jian Ji" volume, or the "thousand thousand characters" and "three thousand thousand characters" in the song written by Wei Qi and Ge gang are not as good as the word "Qian Zi Wen" in the original version of Zhou Xingsi. Let alone the various kinds of thousand characters, two thousand words, three thousand characters and even ten thousand characters after the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Before introducing Mr. Qi Gong's article, it is said that "thousand words", which is called "heaven and earth Xuan Huang", is because there are many kinds of amendments after that.
In addition to literacy, Qian Zi Wen is also very suitable for accumulating vocabulary. The "three character scripture" focuses on the principle of elucidation, so it not only avoids heavy words, but also has little vocabulary. "Thousand characters" not only can provide highly used words, but also has rich vocabulary, beautiful language, many of which are commonly used idioms nowadays, such as the summer and winter, the abuses of the people, the need to change, the voice of the empty valley, the deep down, the endless stream, the husband's voice and so on. The genre of "four characters and one sentence" makes the meaning of "thousand characters" profound, concise and expressive. Almost every sentence can be used as an idiom.
One thing most people can't imagine is that Qian Zi Wen is the criterion of learning calligraphy. As the thousand characters, the one thousand commonly used Chinese characters are not repeated, plus the elegance and elegance of the lines. More importantly, its production is closely related to the Book Saint Wang Xizhi. Therefore, it has become the most favorite object of calligraphers in the past dynasties. Most famous calligraphers in ancient China wrote "thousand characters". From the perspective of calligraphy education and edification, no enlightenment book can provide richer and more comprehensive calligraphy models than "thousand characters".
Modern illustrated book "thousand characters"
An introduction to ancient cultural history
Impart knowledge and cultivate temperament.
Thousands of characters can provide many words and words, but in fact, the knowledge provided by them is broader and more systematic than other enlightenment books. It can help beginners learn allusions and familiarity with historical figures and events. From the natural environment to the ancient history, personal cultivation, historical geography, system culture, etc., the theme is clear, and the theory of sentence and sentence comes from one line to the next, and is promoted by layers. For this reason, to understand the history and culture of Liang Dynasty before, it is the most appropriate and efficient way to make textbooks.
Some enlightenment books only introduce some historical facts, which is far from enough. Only with culture can children learn the pulse of ancient Chinese culture while learning knowledge. In the introduction of the natural environment, Qian Zi Wen talked about ancient Chinese calendars, such as "Yu Yu Cheng, Lu Lu Yang Yang", which dealt with the problem of "leap year" (Lulu used as an ancient instrument for correcting musical instruments and the name of tone). When introducing personal accomplishment, he talked about Chinese ancient concepts of loyalty and filial piety, respecting and respecting, and so on. For example, "father is a gentleman, he is strict and respectfully", "happiness is cheap, and etiquette is not respectfully inferior". " These contents can help children to further understand the cultural features of their own nation.
"Thousand characters" can not only teach children to read and write, but also teach the truth of life, and integrate the principles of moral cultivation of children into their historical and cultural knowledge, such as "Meng Ke Dun Su", Shi Bing straight. A few mediocre, labor modest instructions "," two sparse machine, solution group who is forced. The stories of Meng Zi, Shi Yu, Shu Guang Shu Ji and Wang Chong, respectively, are described in terms of silence, silence, loneliness, "reading and playing in the market," and at the same time, they show that the quality of being simple, honest, understanding the opportunity and diligence and learning is much more powerful than those of dull and empty sermon. (Shi Yu, in the spring and Autumn period, Wei Guo doctor was famous for his direct remonding. He was extensive and sparse. The Tai Fu and Shao Fu of Han Xuan emperor were famous for their fame, and then returned to their homeland by observing the crisis. Wang Chong, a thinker in the Eastern Han Dynasty, wrote "Heng Heng".
Moreover, the book was written earlier, and it was not like some enlightenment books, which was full of feudal preaching like three principles and five constant. The principles mentioned here are, for example, "keeping warm in the early days", "knowing what needs to be done", "never forget", "not talking about others short, relying on others for a long time", "not having a good foot in the right place", "competing in the shade", "sincere at the beginning, sincere in the end, and so on," are all simple Chinese traditional virtues.
(the writer is an associate professor of the Institute of ancient literature, Faculty of Arts, Beijing Normal University)