Wang Wei Li Bai wrote a poem chant the richle mountain, where is it? In fact, the area is very small
Xu Feng UN wolf, as richle, called the Han Dynasty with two victories of foreign military, the former refers to the Huo in energy-saving held heaven sealing ceremony, Bing Feng forced to desert (now Lake Baikal), the latter refers to the Eastern Han Dynasty Dou Xian broken North Hun, the mountain stone victory.
Author: Xin Deyong
In the later poems repeatedly referred to as richle, such as Wang Wei's "to the frontier", many people only remember the famous "desert straight down the long river of the yen, but forgot the words" Xiao Guanfeng when riding, but in richle". The poet Li Bai also has "sword leaning on richle, side peaks towering column" lofty sentiments.
However, Yanran mountain where? Richle khangai mountain mountain is one that comes from the Qing dynasty. However, the history of the Inner Mongolia University in cooperation with the Mongolia scholars and scholars visited the historical and cultural relics in Mongolia plateau, the Eastern Han Dynasty famous scholar Ban Gu wrote to commemorate the victory of the north Xiongnu Dou Xian "richle mountain Ming was found in the territory of Mongolia". "Previously, the specific location of the richle mountain inscription" has not been recognized. But the discovery of cliff stone inscription, its location, nature is the Han Dynasty Yanran mountain.
"Richle mountain inscription" text in the extant literature are: one in the Songfan Liu Ye wrote "Han - Xianchuan" anthology in sinus, Prince Liang Zhaoming Xiao Xiao Tong compilation ". This new discovery is the original inscription, the Eastern Han dynasty. Compared with historical text, text content and not much difference. Then, the value of this discovery is reflected in where?
Here, I want to tell the readers, it first let us clearly understand that the mountain is engraved with the inscription where, followed by the inscriptions carved on the cliff. Below, I start from the mountain far away, about the mountain and the mountain behind the inscription has ever happened in the story.
1, richle mountain have glory, also have shame
Mention richle mountain and carved on the hill "richle Shan Ming", many people will casually hum the famous "Zhuojiu cup home thousands of miles, not to no richle le". The desolate words express the generation of official Fan Zhongyan for the song to defend the helpless and the nostalgia of Northwest frontier. The so-called "no richle le", is used by Dou Xian Le Ming richle Hill past as meritorious mark, to tell he is involved in the field to see the end of the war. Now popular words, Fan Zhongyan this sentiment, is the apparent lack of "positive energy", especially after a long frost are everywhere, people insomnia, general white hair Yukio tears". The Qiang flute melodious, frost sprinkled the earth, can not sleep, the soldiers are frost dyed white hair, only silently tears.
In contrast, Lu You's "water village" at night, although also has the sense of desolation, but still full of entrepreneurial intention, so it can fit Dou Xian Le Ming mountain richle skill: "arrow waist long sigh not withered, richle Le ming. You can still Lao Tzu the vast desert, why cry the new pavilion? A country has died, but to the people no longer green. Remember the Lake boat, lying off the cold Xinyan Wen ting."
To le Ming marked richle and recovery of central homeland, Lu You was regarded as the life ambition here. To achieve this ambition, it is his life's supreme glory, so before dying, not forget the son said "Wang Zhongyuan date scheduled for the north division, been forgotten but weng". Yanran mountain, in the eyes of Lu You, it is a supreme glory of the mountain. In fact, in the heart of Fan Zhongyan, too. It can be said that the Song Dynasty scholars werepursuing shared a kind of feelings.
However, if the real scene back to the Han Dynasty, it is not difficult to see, this is just for one of their imagination to a great extent. In fact, in the mountains near richle, the Han Army and the Huns had occurred several times in battle, which also has the victory, defeat. But people always love to mention the most glorious period.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty Dou Xian Zheng Hun, from the data, of course, can be said to have won a glorious victory. Dou Xian just before the battle, the southern Xiongnu troops Crusade North Hun Han request. Dou Xian joined the army and the southern Xiongnu and Qiang Hu Zaizhuo evil mountain (now Mongolia West, Al Taishan dongmai realignment). Dou Xian Yan, Sima life vice Xiaowei Geng Kui disc rate troops more than 10000, and the northern Rocky Mountain Ji Chanyu in combat, breaking the northern Xiongnu Chanyu, escape. Dou Xian in the chase, until the private channel than Di sea (UVs Noel Lake). The total of the northern Xiongnu soldiers beheaded more than 13000 people, captured horses, cattle and sheep, camel hundred head, down eighty-one, and about two hundred thousand people. Dou Xian, Geng Deng Bingsui richle Stone Mountain, Le Gong, Ji Han Willard, make Ban Gu ming.
Since the Qin Shihuang era, the Central Plains and the northern grasslands of the Huns, has been in a serious conflict. First, before the Qin Dynasty, the Huns repeatedly with Qin, Zhao and Yan three war, Qin, Zhao and Yan three in the north to expand outward border. Qin Shihuang dominate after year to start construction of the the Great Wall, to stabilize the North expansion territory, north to ensure safety. According to "Qin Shihuang Shih", to Qin Shihuang for thirty-two years, from a state of Yan old liar, called Lu Sheng, he stole a painting of a symbol, in the above got "the death of Qin Hu also" five words. This is the so-called "talismans" thing, but she wanted ever-young Qin Shihuang seriously, he put the "Hu" is understood as the northern barbarian, is the. Then, the emperor sent General Meng Tian led the three hundred thousand army once again to the north margin over the border to the south, now occupied the Warring States Qin to all the territory north of the Great Wall, the Huns and lost a strategic. The contradiction between the central government and the northern Xiongnu, the fierce armed conflict continued. To the Western Han Dynasty, intensified.
If you stand in the Central Plains self-interest standpoint, the northern Xiongnu is the number one enemy, can also be said to be a threat to its security of a mortal malady. This view of the Eastern Han Dynasty Dou Xian North, its historical significance is completely out of the Mongolia plateau occupies more than 300 years old, was an unprecedented victory, and wins a nature can be said to be a great honor. Accordingly, the inscription Jigong inscription Yanran mountain, became a glorious mountain.
However, if we see the more the hill past history, it had the opposite another experience.
"Yanran mountain" this name, first seen in "Mutianzi biography", but "Mutianzi biography" in "Yanran mountain" is a Chinese name, and the northern grassland this "Yanran mountain", it should be the names of the huns. He Yanran mountain, this mountain richle. See it in the "Han Hun biography" and "speed initially there is evil Ukraine the Xiongnu language even said the book as" evil Ukraine richle speed mountain ", it is easy to see this point.
In accordance with the "Han Wu Ji" and "Han Hun biography" recorded in the Western Han Dynasty, Wu Dizheng and three years (90 BC), two division general Li Guangli led the seventy thousand army north Wuyuan plug out go forward with great strength and vigour, Xiongnu conquest. Troops off the wind scene light, not in the back way through Yanran mountain, but was ambushed by the Huns, the soldiers of Gen. Li Guangli The whole army was wiped out., is not very decent at the foot bent to surrender.
With a Yanran mountain, is also a victory, defeat, this is the history of the real thing, richle mountain is in such a posture in China history. Fan Zhongyan and Lu You, but deliberately chose another they are more willing to bear the memory.
The Han Dynasty map
2, push up far move very close
The Han Dynasty experienced such a major war Yanran mountain, after the northern and Southern Dynasties, gradually fade out the historical records. After being expelled from the Hun Dou Xian of Mongolia plateau, the northern steppe zone have Xianbei, ROEN (i.e., squirming and Turks possess). Shiyishibian, mainland China scholar, it is difficult to find out when the outsider alien mentioned names, the name of mountain where. When the Tang Dynasty Yan shigu note "Han", do not know the famous mountain where. Later Zhanghuai crown prince Li Xian rate people comment "Houhanshu", is to "Xianchuan" in "richle sinus mountain" is not a word of this important place. This shows that Yan and Li in this social context, really can not find the relevant data, only vaguely aware that is a mountain in the distance.
Because there is no data can be based on, people with their own imagination, have been speculating the possible location. For example, "Old Tang Shu Beidi biography" recorded that Zhenguan twenty-one years, "a tiny, ten tribes on the Huihe Xue Yan Tuo dead scattered completely, but have returned. The king because of the land, the tribe, the State Department for: Sea Du Fu Han Uighur, and bone micro doudufu, more laid for GE richle doudufu." The name "richle doudufu", apparently with the related understanding of Tang Shan richle. Today Mr. Tan Qixiang editor of the "China historical atlas", the "restoration richle dudufu" position, is now the capital of Mongolia near Ulan Bator, which shows that the Li Tang court in some people, the richle mountain, should be located in this area.
Mark the Chinese Atlas of physical geography
Because there is no clearly documented, the Tang dynasty literati can put it into the distance and a push, push and push too far. After the owners changed into Zhao's world, sung can of course make it move over, and it can be moved very close. When the throne to the Emperor Huizong bottom, even strange idea, start to dream.
At that time the North Liao declining northeast just the rise of the Jurchen vigor is male. The situation, for the Song Dynasty, the policy is reasonable, appropriate assistance can only use it as a buffer against the Khitan, jurchen. But Song Huizong made a decision: in contrast with the Jurchen alliance, North and south flank, in one fell swoop exterminate liao.
The planning of Song Huizong, is to recover ceded Chanyuan alliance Georan Youzhou (now Beijing) the surrounding area. But the soldiers really don't work, their attack did not enter, is actually the Jurchens won the land, "charity" to the song dynasty. This maid to see the Song Dynasty real weakness, at any time may re take Youzhou jinbing. In short, Song Huizong's move is self defeating. Do not save to diplomacy. This horse has been the Jurchen burglary, but Song Huizong regardless of the subjugation of the crisis, but more concerned about the maintenance in Wang's image before.
So, in order to highlight the associated gold Liaoning this decision he announced that the people of the Liao, song "Yanjing", formerly known as Youzhou, renamed "Yanshan palace". The secret, he is forced to here together and Yanran mountain. Song Huizong in the imperial edict in particular told said: "the ancient Yanjing youzhou. Wu Wang Ke, Feng Shao Gong Shi Yu Yan (called), to Yanran mountain." This is without any basis nonsense, all of a sudden the richle mountains from the Mongolia plateau to the northern margin of the North China plain. It moved from the Central Plains very close, it is close at hand, like magic magic in general. Li Si Qin Shihuang was to give advice and suggestions, supported by a brilliant idea, called "don't be a black and white", meaning when the emperor wanted to say is how to say. Black and white are upside down, the passing of a seat, where not to. Anyway, he said much, however outrageous, scholars can not just talk in full.
Since Song Huizong has insisted on the Western Zhou Dynasty "Yanshan" (now Yanshan) that is the Han Dynasty "Yanran mountain", is to take the so-called victory Song Jun recovered with Yanjing Dou Xian northern Huns get closely together, in order to strongly boast of this action will improve its historical significance, and enough to Dou Xian Hun in the expulsion of valiant record level. So, how much he might relieve some encountered embarrassment and embarrassed.
But the fake is fake, Yanshan never turned Yanran mountain, dying in Northern Song Dynasty can not rely on the strong support of the face and then continue to support. Not long after, it was the Jurchens out Song Huizong, Zhao Ji and his son Zhao Huan was also captured jinbing.
3, really Yanran mountain area is very small
Richle mountains, is an important coordinate point, including the battle, Dou Xian North, geographical process of some important war in the Han Dynasty, all need to rely on it to determine. If you can't correctly determine richle mountains, it cannot be restored state space associated with a series of historical geographical elements.
In Qing Dynasty, understanding of the position of the richle mountain, began to change. After the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the textual research of ancient geography and prosperity, in which the textual research also occupies a very important position, which makes some scholars attempt to more clearly identify Yanran mountain position; at the same time, because the Qing court has jurisdiction over the grasslands of Mongolia, also makes this study objectively has more convenient conditions than in song and Ming dynasties.
But due to the lack of reliable records, they actually only according to the landform to infer the mountain. According to the official "Daqing Yitong Zhi" records of the case, these scholars think today is the khangai mountains Yanran mountain.
Declaration on the map of Hang Aishan Memorial
Today the khangai mountain is a long big mountains, it is the easternmost end on orhon river shore, so the view. "Daqing Yitong Zhi" clearly documented that the khangai mountain is in the north of Erdos Kun River ", or" Erdos Kun river source out hangay Shannan ", this" Bo Kun River "is now" orhon River ", which means that the Qing Dynasty Hang Aishan said, the East should stop in the Orkhon River to the north and West; that is to say, the Qing Dynasty scholars of Yanran mountain, the East is East but here.
In the late Qing Dynasty and modern times, the Chinese ancient scholars research Chinese, basically inherited the "Qing Yi Tong Zhi" as the representative of the Qing Dynasty scholar's view, the richle mountain is equivalent to the orhon River on the source of West of the khangai mountains. As Tan Qixiang editor of the "China historical atlas" are so.
If there is no new discovery "richle mountain cliff stone inscription", so people can only judge, but the newly discovered "richle Shan Ming", provides a new and reliable evidence for us to re recognize the richle mountain location: because this is the North Road Dou Xian engraved on the wall above the inscription this article, engraved with the inscription of the natural hills is really Yanran mountain. What literature records, as well as the discovery of more reliable, more clear. We should really appreciate this great academic scholars found that the Inner Mongolia University and Mongolia.
Then, the discovery of "Ming" richle mountain mountain in where? It is in the Orkhon River to South East, far far away, it is in a "Weng Jinhe River" east coast, is a Solitary Hill area is very small. "Daqing Yitong Zhi" description, khangai mountain is in the northwest in five hundred Weng river". This means that the official "Qing Zhi unification" the presumption of Yanran mountain, not only is now found "Yanran mountain Ming" place, and at least five hundred in the northwest from its actual location, which obviously exists serious fallacy.
Yanran mountain is located in a previous never think of the place, seems a little weird, but a careful analysis of this position, it can be seen that the Dou Xian here "inscribed richle mountain inscription", is full of rationality.
In the Mongolia plateau of North and south, there is a so-called vast water area, known as the "desert". The "desert", caused a great barrier to always on the move, the South and north sides were called "south of the desert and desert". Yanran mountain is located in the north, is the most close to the south of the desert Mobei area, the West flowing from the north to the south is the closest Weng River, north desert river; at the same time, in the south of the desert, the desert near agricultural areas, is the the Yellow River Hetao area. On the other hand, from the interaction between Hetao and Weng is the golden river, near the Czech channel between the south of the desert, desert; by the two place respectively to the orhon River Basin in ancient Mongolia prairie heartland or Zhou Qin Han and Tang Dynasties and where the capital of the Weihe Valley, also most of czech.
The characteristics of location aware of the above richle mountain, we can easily understand that the Constitution in the northern Xiongnu after sinus rout the way why in the return of the troops to the capital, richle hill stone published what other places instead of two, of course: first, because the richle mountain is between the South and the North where necessary; secondly, because here is between the South and the north part of the land, to be able to make the inscription is well known, to achieve maximum publicity effect. Just to say, although far away the mountain is very small, but the place is very important.
"Yanran mountain cliff stone inscription" local map
And 4, Dou Xian North.
From the surface form, Ban Gu wrote the "Ming" is to Yanran mountain, Dou Xian is flatter, is a "monument". But it was only when Ban Gu wrote the inscription, the subjective desire of life people this Dou Xian engraved inscription on the descendants look at historical relics, has its own value judgment is wrong, not by them.
Dou Xian the north, seemingly brilliant results, the actual stance in the Han Dynasty, is not worth write a great deal about. This is because the heart is evil although the Central Plains Dynasty of Qin Dynasty, but before the Dou Xian troops Crusade has weakened, the huns.
From the overall situation, the North Mongolia plateau, there must be a different from the Central Plains farming civilization and nomadic regime, the nomadic regime is also difficult to avoid conflict with the Central Plains dynasty. Faced with this situation, a reasonable choice of the Central Plains, simply said, only one, that is hard to control the situation, let the prairie maintain a weak regime, in order to reduce the threat.
The country not long to the divide and rule. At that time the Huns split into the northern and southern part of the southern Xiongnu, attached to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Han Dynasty living in northern border area, North Hun in Mobei prairie region to orhon River as the center. South and North hun hun confrontation, greatly reduced the threat to the Han Dynasty to the Han Dynasty, this should be the most favorable situation.
Dou Xian sent troops against the northern Xiongnu, may result in two outcomes: one is the north to the South Hun, to establish a unified Hun empire; two is the vacuum control other peoples of northern north Xiongnu left, the rise of a more powerful grassland. No matter what kind of situation, the central plains are more adverse. Therefore, the Eastern Han Dynasty, and later the Dou Xian North Huizong linked the eradication of Liaoning, is a very unwise. From a strategic point of view, this is the first reactive period.
Then the specific motivation Dou Xian, this expedition is actually very mobilize too many troops, disgraceful, and her sister Dou Xian Dou is planning a political show.
After the Han Emperor Zhang died, and Emperor throne. But the young emperor and empress Dou, with his mother who wielded the identity. Dou Xian is the brother of empress Dou, nature is mainly rely on her helper. When Dou's brother is not very stable state control, for fear of others scattered Dou Xian their power, have killed the beloved lover and Dou Dou, in fury, my brother held.
Dou Xian killed his sister's lover and Dou imprisoned his brother, are the feelings of the impulse to do the confused thing. One moment of calm down, it's easy to understand, Dou to control the power, in order to ensure the interests of the Dou family, no big brother's help, is absolutely not. But the minister Mitsutomo watched it, nor to life as a trifling matter, said hold, said let go. Now facing the dilemma, is the brother and sister duo how gracefully to unlock the cover.
Let Dou Xian daizuiligong, is their way up. Because the North Huns had already sent troops to victory sign cannot withstand a single blow, will be. With this great merit, not only to relieve sinus constitution crime, can give him rise through the ranks, Dou's siblings can firmly control the affairs of state.
So, we see the Dou Xian North victory. The result is a Dou's siblings of the Eastern Han Dynasty palace full control, open Internet Governance and the eunuch stem two malpractice history of Eastern Han dynasty. Even some of the scourge, is the central plains. This is not the slightest merit can remember.
Review the history, think about the future, the distant mountain looks in space and time seems to be far away from us, but also very close to the actual.