Where is the Yan Ran mountain written by Wang Wei and Li Bai? In fact, the area is very small.
The two great victories of the Han Dynasty in foreign martial arts were the closing of the wolf and Xu Yan. The former refers to Huo Jie disease, who held a memorial ceremony in wolf hill, and the soldiers pushed it to the Han Hai (today's Lake Baikal). The latter refers to the Eastern Han Dynasty, after the Dou Xian broke up the northern Xiongnu, and recorded the inscription on the hill.
Author: Xin Deyong
Descendants mentioned many times in the poetry, such as Wang Wei's "make up to the plug". Many people only remember the famous phrase "the desert is lonely and the long river falls to the Japanese yen", but forget the next sentence "Xiao Guan Hui Hou riding, all in the". And Li Bai, a poet, also has a lofty feeling of "depending on the sword to ascend, and the side peak to row."
But where is mount Yan? Yan Ran mountain is the story of Hang AI mountain, which came from the Qing Dynasty. However, when the historians of Inner Mongolia University and Mongolia scholars collaborated on the historical and cultural relics of the Mongolia plateau, they found the "Yan Ran Shan Ming" written by Ban Gu, a famous scholar in the Eastern Han Dynasty, to commemorate the victory of Dou Xian's northern Huns in Mongolia. Previously, the specific location of "Yan Ran Shan Ming" has not been confirmed. This time, the inscription on the cliff inscription is found, and its location is naturally the Yan Mountain of the Han Dynasty.
"Yan Ran Shan Ming" has a text in the handed down literature. It is seen in the book of Hou Han Shu Dou Xian Xian written by Liu Song Fan Ye in the Southern Dynasty. Goodbye to Xiao Wen Tong's works selected by Xiao Liang Zhaoming's Prince. The newly discovered inscription was the original in the Eastern Han Dynasty. Compared with the handed down text, there is not much difference in text content. Then, what is the value of this discovery?
Here, I want to tell you readers, first of all, let us clearly understand where the mountain inscription is, followed by the inscription on the cliff. Now, from the distant mountain, I will talk about the story behind the inscription on the mountain and the mountain.
1, there are glory and shame in Mount Yan.
To mention Yan Ran mountain and engraved on the mountain "Yan Ran Shan Ming", many people will chant the famous phrase "" a cup of wine and a million miles, but not to return. " The desolate words express the helpless and homesickness of Fan Zhongyan, a famous official, who had been defending the northwest frontier in Song Dynasty. The so-called "Yan Ren Lai le" is through the use of Dou Xian Ling Ming Yan Shan's past as a sign of building up a career, to tell him that he is participating in the war that can not see the end. With the current passage, Fan Zhongyan's sentiment is obviously lacking in "positive energy", especially in the latter sentence, "the long tube is full of frost, people are sleepless, and the general is white." The flute of the Qiang people melodious, the frost covered the earth, and it was hard to fall asleep. The officers and men were dyed white by frost and snow, and could only weep silently.
In contrast, Lu You's "night water village", though still quite desolate and unambitious, is still full of positive and enterprising intentions, so it can better suit the skill of Dou Yan Ling's Yan Mountain. Lao Tzu is still in the desert. Why do all the king cry to the new pavilion? All of us are dead, and our temples are no longer green. Remember the boat at the rivers and lakes, and lie down to hear the new wild birds drop cold ting.
Lu You, as the symbol of Yan Ming, has restored the Central Plains homeland. To achieve this ambition is the supreme glory of Lu You's life. So before he died, he told his son to say "Wang Shi Bei set the Central Plains day, and the family sacrifice was never forgotten." Yan Ran mountain, in Lu You's mind, is a mountain of supreme glory. In fact, it is the same in Fan Zhongyan's mind. This is also a feeling shared by scholars of Song Dynasty.
However, if we return to the real scenes of the Han Dynasty, we can easily see that this is largely due to their imagination. In fact, there were several battles between the Han Army and Huns in the vicinity of Mount Yan. But people always like to mention the most brilliant period.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, Dou Xian's northern hunted Huns were, of course, a brilliant victory in terms of data. Before the death of Dou Xian, the South Huns asked the Han Dynasty to send troops to fight down the northern Huns. Dou Xian's army and the South Hun and Qiang Hu, who were returned to the army, joined forces in the Han Dynasty (the west of Mongolia and the east of Taishan). Dou Xian life, deputy school officer, Yan pan, Sima, Geng Kui and so on, were more than 10000 of the elite soldiers. They fought with Bei Shan Yu in the Xiaowan mountain. Dou constitutionalism pursued the whole army until the private canal was higher than the sea. In this campaign, a total of more than 13000 officers and men were killed, and more than 100 million horses, cattle, sheep and camels were captured. There were eighty-one descending persons and about two hundred thousand persons. Dou Xian and Geng bin came to mount Yan Mountain, carved stone and Li Gong, Ji Han Wei, making Ban Gu the inscription.
Since the time of Qin Shihuang, the Zhongyuan Dynasty and the Huns in the northern grassland have been in serious conflict. First, before the unification of six kingdoms, the Huns fought repeatedly with the Three Kingdoms of Qin, Zhao and Yan. After Qin Shihuang ruled the whole country, he built the Great Wall in the same year to stabilize the territory of the north and ensure the safety of the north. According to the book of records of Qin Shihuang, thirty-two years ago, there was a liar named Lu Sheng, who was from the old Yan country. He stole a picture and put up five characters on the top of his book, "Qin Qin Hu Hu". This is really the so-called "ghosts", but Qin Shihuang, who wants to be immortal, takes it seriously. He understands this "Hu" as a hu man in the north, that is, the Huns. Thus, Emperor Qin Shihuang dispatched general Meng Tian, led by the three hundred thousand armies, to the border line of Peking University again and again, occupying all the territories north of the current Yinshan Mountains and the the Great Wall of the Warring States period, and the Xiongnu lost a strategic place. The contradiction between the Central Plains Empire and the northern Huns became fiercer and fiercely, and armed conflicts continued. In the Western Han Dynasty, it became more and more intense.
If we stand in the position of the interests of the Central Plains Dynasty, the Huns in the north can be regarded as the number one enemy. In this way, the historical significance of Dou Xian's Northern Expedition in the Eastern Han Dynasty was that he had completely driven away the old enemy who occupied the Mongolia plateau for more than 300 years. It could be regarded as an unprecedented victory and won easily. Accordingly, the engraved inscription on Mount Yan, which is inscribed on its inscription, has become a glorious mountain top.
However, if we take a closer look at the past history of the hill, it has a completely different experience.
The name of "Yan Ran Shan" was first seen in the biography of Mu Tian Zi, but the "Yan Ran Shan" in Mu Tian Zhuan is a Chinese place name, while the "Yan Ran mountain" in the northern grassland is the place name of the Hun language. The mountain of Yan Ran. Take a look at it. When it first appeared in Han Shu Hun biography, it was associated with the place name of "Xiuwu", which is easy to see.
According to the records of Han Shu Wu Di Ji and Han Shu Hun biography, in the Western Han Dynasty Wu Dizheng and three years (90 BC), the seventy thousand army led by general Li Guangli led the north to the Wuyuan and expedition Huns. When the troops went out to fight, they could not imagine that when they passed the Yan Ran mountain on the way back to the army, they were ambushed by the Huns. They were completely annihilated by the army. Li Guangli, a general of the army, bowed to the mountain at the foot of the mountain.
The same Yan Ran mountain, which has both failed and won, is what happened in history. Fan Zhongyan and Lu You, however, deliberately chose another kind of memory that they would rather remember.
Map of Han Dynasty
2, push up very far and move very close.
Yan Ran mountain, which had experienced such a great war in the Han Dynasty, gradually disappeared from the historical records after the Wei, Jin and southern and Northern Dynasties. After the Xiongnu was expelled from Mongolia plateau by Dou Xian, the northern steppe area was successively owned by Xianbei, ROEN and the Turks. After the passage of time, it is difficult for the scholars in the Central Plains of China to find out where the names and names of the aliens are. At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty, Yan Shijiao wrote "Han Shu", and he said it was not clear where the famous mountain was. Later, Zhang Huai Prince Li Xian annotated the book of Hou Han, but it did not address the important place name of "Yan Ran Shan" in "the book of Dou Xian". This shows that Yan and Li are not able to find relevant data in such a social background, but only vaguely know that it is a distant mountain.
Because there is no real data to be based, people imagine their possible locations with their own imagination. For example, the old Tang Dynasty biography of Bei Di recorded that in the twenty-one years of Zhenguan, more than ten tribes, such as Qi and Hui, died in the collapse of Xue Yan. Taizong, because of its land, chooses its tribes to form the state capital: the Ministry of the Hui nationality is the governor's residence of the Han sea, the servant bone is the gold micro governor's residence, and the more is the "Yan Ran Du Fu Fu". The name of the "Yan Ran Du Fu" is obviously related to the Yan Mountain, which is understood by the Tang people. Today, the Historical Atlas of China, edited by Mr. Tan Qixiang, has restored the position of "Yan Ran Du Fu" in the vicinity of Ulan Bator, the capital of Mongolia. This shows that some people in the Li Tang court believe that the mount Yan Ran that year should be located in this area.
The landmark of natural geography Atlas of China
Because there is no clear literature, scholars in the Tang Dynasty can push it far away and push it far away. After that, the Song Dynasty people could also move it again, and could move it nearer. When the emperor was sent to the bottom of Song Hui's butt, the emperor had a strange dream and began to dream of a powerful nation.
At that time, the situation of the Liao state in the North was declining, and the Nu Zhen just rising in Northeast China was vigorous. For the Song Dynasty, a reasonable national policy can only help Khitan and use it as a buffer for Nuzhen. However, Song Huizong made an opposite decision: alliance with NV, attack north and south, and destroy the Liao kingdom in one fell swoop.
Song Huizong's specific plan is to recapture the alliance of the Yuan Yuan and ceded it to the surrounding area of Khitan (now Beijing). However, the soldiers in the Song Dynasty were not at all serious and could not attack themselves. In fact, after the woman took the land, they gave alms to the Song Dynasty. The servant girl saw the weakness of the Song Dynasty, and at any moment, the golden army could conquer the state again. In short, Song Huizong's action was to dig his own grave. The failed diplomacy is irreparable. Although the wolf of nirchen had entered the room, Song Huizong ignored the crisis of subjugation and was more concerned about maintaining his image in front of the little people.
Therefore, in order to highlight the holy decision of the joint decision to make Liao, the Song Emperor Hui Zun announced the renamed "Yanjing" of the Liao people, that is, the former state of Yanshan. The secret is that he has forced it to connect with Mount Yan. In the imperial edict, Song Huizong said in particular: "Yanjing ancient state. Wu Wang Ke Shang, Feng Shao (Zhao) Gong Gong Yu Yan, named Yan Ran Shan. This is nothing but a bullshit, pulling Yan Mountain from the Mongolia plateau to the northern edge of the North China plain at once. Moving it far away from the Central Plains is very close. It's almost magical. Li Si made a brilliant plan to Qin Shihuang, which was called "not black and white." Black and white can be reversed. It is not possible for the ancient people to move past one. Anyway, he has the biggest mouth, no matter how much he says.
The reason why Song Huizong insisted on the "Yanshan" (now Yanshan) since the Western Zhou Dynasty is the "Yanran mountain" of the Han Dynasty. It is to closely restore Song Jun's return to Yanjing and win the so-called victory of the Xiongnu in the northern expedition. In this way, how much relief and embarrassment he may encounter can be relieved.
But the fake is false. After all, Yanshan has not become a Yan Mountain. The dying northern song can not continue to support it by relying on strong support. Before long, it was destroyed by the real woman. Song Huizong Zhao and his son Zhao Huan were captured by the Golden Army.
3. The area of Yan Ran mountain is very small.
The position of Yan Ran mountain is an important coordinate base point, including the service of the north of the Dou Dynasty. The geographical process of some important wars in the Han Dynasty needs to be determined by it. If we can not correctly determine the location of Mount Yan, we can not restore the spatial state of a series of historical and geographical factors related to it.
Entering the Qing Dynasty, people began to change their understanding of the position of Mount Yan. After the mid Qing Dynasty, textual research flourished, and textual research on ancient geography occupied a very important position. This made some scholars try to identify the position of Mount Yan clearly, and at the same time, because the Qing Dynasty ruled Mongolia grassland, it also made the research more convenient than the song and Ming Dynasties.
However, due to the lack of reliable literature, they can only deduce according to the topography. According to official records of the Qing Dynasty, these scholars believe that mount Yannan is today's Hang AI mountain.
Hang Aishan on the memorial map
Today's Hang AI mountain is a very long and large mountain. Its eastern end is on the shore of the erhun river. The Qing Dynasty unified records clearly stated that hang AI mountain is "in the north of Erkun River" or "the source of Erkun River" in the north of Erkun river. This "Erkun River" is now the "erhun River". This means that the eastern end of Hang Aishan in Qing Dynasty should be cut off to the north and west of the erhun river. That is to say, the Yan Mountain of Qing scholars is most east but East.
In the late Qing Dynasty and even in modern times, the Chinese scholars who studied ancient public lands basically inherited the above view of the Qing Dynasty scholars represented by the Qing Dynasty unified ruler, and equated mount Yan Mountain to the hang AI mountains on the west of the erhun river. Such as the Historical Atlas of China Edited by Tan Qixiang.
If there is no newly discovered "Yan Ran Shan Ming" cliff inscription, people can only judge this way, but the newly discovered "Yan Ran Shan Ming" provides us with a completely new and reliable evidence to reconsider the location of Mount Yan: because this is the inscription inscribed on the stone wall on the road of Dou Xian Bei, and the hill inscribed with this inscription is naturally Yan Ran mountain. What literature is not more reliable and clearer than this finding. We should really thank the Inner Mongolia University and Mongolia scholars for this important academic discovery.
Then, where is the mountain that "Yan Ran Shan Ming" discovered this time? It is very far away from the South and east of the erhun river. It is a small isolated hill on the east coast of a river called Weng Jinhe. "The unification of the Qing Dynasty" records that the hang AI mountain is in the "Weng Jin River northwest five hundred Li". This means that the Yannan mountain, which was presumed by the Qing court officials to repair the "unified aspiration", is not only the place where the "Yan Ran Shan Ming" is discovered now, but at least the northwest deviates from its actual location more than five hundred Li, which is obviously very serious fallacy.
Mount Yan Ran in such a place that no one had ever thought of before. It seems a little strange. However, after careful analysis of this position, we can see that it is reasonable for Dou Xian to engrave "Yan Ran Shan Ming" here.
In the north and south of the Mongolia plateau, there is a so-called "no water zone" in the middle. This "desert" is a great barrier to South and North, and its south and north sides are known as "south of the desert" and "north of the north" respectively. Yan Ran mountain is located in the north of the desert, but it is the place where the north is closest to the south of the desert. The Weng Jin River flowing from the north to the south is also the closest River to the desert. At the same time, in the southern part of the desert, the most agricultural area close to the desert is the Hetao area of the Yellow River. On the other hand, between the Hetao and Weng Jinhe rivers, they are the closest channel between southern and Northern Mongolia. The two locations are located in the erhun River Valley in the core of the ancient grassland in Mongolia, or in the valley of the Qin Dynasty and the capital of the Han and Tang Dynasties.
It is easy for us to understand the location characteristics of the above mount Yan Mountain. When Dou Xian defeated the northern Huns on the way back to the army, why did he publish the stone achievement on Mount Yan Mountain instead of other places? First of all, of course, because Yan Ran mountain is a place to go between the north and south of the desert. Second, it is precisely because this is a necessary place to go between the north and the south of the desert. That is to say, though the mountain is far away and very small, the place is very important.
"Yan Ran Shan Ming" cliff carved stone part
4, the merits and faults of Dou Xian's Northern Expedition.
From the surface form, Ban Gu wrote this "Yan Ran Shan Ming", which is a praise for Dou Xian and a "record of merit". But this is only when Ban Gu wrote this inscription and Dou Xian Sheng's subjective desire to engrave this inscription on the stone wall. Later generations have their own value judgments about the historical relics.
Dou Xian's Northern Expedition, which seems to be brilliant, actually stands on the position of the Han Dynasty, and is not worth writing about. This is because the Hun is the heart of the Central Plains Dynasty since the Qin Dynasty. But before the liberation army was defeated, the Huns were also weak.
From the overall situation, there is bound to be a nomadic regime different from the Central Plains farming culture in the northern Mongolia plateau, and such a nomadic regime can hardly avoid conflicts with the Central Plains. Faced with such a situation, the only choice for the rational choice of the Central Plains Dynasty is to strive to control the situation and maintain a weak regime on the grasslands to mitigate the threat.
In the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Hun had been divided and ruled for a long time. At that time, the Huns were divided into two parts: the South and the north, the southern Huns attached to the Eastern Han Dynasty, lived in the northern border of the Han Dynasty, and the northern Huns stayed in the mebei grassland area centered on the erhun river. The confrontation between the southern Huns and the northern Huns greatly reduced the threat to the Han Dynasty, which should be the most favorable situation for the Han Dynasty.
Dou Xian dispatched troops to extort the northern Huns, which might result in two kinds of outcomes: first, the South Huns returned to the north to rebuild the unified Hun empire; two, the other northern nationalities controlled the northern Huns' vacuum zone and raised a more powerful grassland empire. In either case, the Central Plains Dynasty is even more disadvantageous. Therefore, for the Eastern Han Dynasty, Dou Xian's Northern Expedition and later Song Hui Zun joined the Jin Dynasty to destroy Liao, which was a very unwise act. From a grand strategic perspective, this is the first thing that can be done without merit.
In terms of the specific motives of Dou Xian, this expedition is actually very disgraceful. It is entirely a political performance planned by Dou Xian and her sister Dou.
After Emperor Han's death, he and Emperor succeeded. However, when he was young, he was in charge of his post as a mother. Dou Xian is the elder brother of the Empress Dowager Dou. Just when Dou's brother and sister controlled the political affairs, it was not very stable. Dou Xian was worried about the power of others to distract himself, and led him to kill his beloved lover.
Dou Xian killed his sister's lover and Dou detained his elder brother, all of them were a temporary affair under the impulse of emotion. As soon as we calm down, it is easy for us to understand that in order to control the power of the Empress Dowager Dou, it is absolutely impossible for us to guarantee the interests of the Dou family without the assistance of big brother. However, the ministers of the DPRK Dynasty were watching them with their eyes open. They could not play the role of life. The dilemma now is how the two brothers and sisters can decently set this set.
Let Dou Xian take the blame for their crimes, that is the way they can solve their problems. Because the North Huns were already vulnerable, they must win the battle. With this great military merit, not only can he remove the sin of Dou Xian, but also give him more official duties. Dou siblings can also control the affairs of the state more firmly.
So we saw the victory of Dou Xian Bei Zheng. The result is the overall control of the Dou's siblings to the Eastern Han Dynasty and the opening of the two major malpractices of the Eastern Han Dynasty. The scourge of farther away is the admission of Xianbei to the Central Plains. There is no more merit to bear in mind.
Looking back on history and thinking about the future, the mountain seems far away from us in space and time, but it is also very close.