Imitation of the "Water Margin" creation "eight dogs"? On the spread and influence of Han nationality in Japan
Some time ago, the Beijing Museum hosts such as "18 century Tokyo and Beijing", "Japan Yongqing library donated Chinese Tibet China National Library Exhibition" and a series of Sino Japanese cultural exhibition attracted many viewers. This is a microcosm of the cultural exchange between China and Japan in the two countries, reflecting the culture has a profound relationship.
Author: Zhou to
The origin seems to be from the Qing Dynasty began to build, China ancient books output continuously, Japanese scholars have also been accepted, research. So far, Japan each year will choose "annual Chinese characters on various occasions" appeared in the social life of the.
In Japan, these Chinese books and knowledge of the recipient's identity varied: both as a calligrapher, writer Sugawara Michima monk Kukai, also for learning Gongqing family descendants; "national culture" became popular, as murasakisikibu Japanese women on behalf of cultural scholars became "goers"; as for the Edo period, the cultural exchange between China and Japan again peak, Japan appeared that draw creative novelist kyokutei Bakin nourishment from Chinese popular novels.
From these facts it is not difficult to see that Chinese culture on Japan deep influence, Japanese scholars also accept the objective to save a lot of Han nationality, but their research has also influenced the study of scholars China reverse.
Konghai: save China poetics theory of Japanese monks
In Japan there are so few words saying: "there was a Dharma Dharma" and "never pick a pen". A mean, then a famous calligrapher also has when writing, consider a thousand equivalent to China's "wise men, there must be a loss"; after the sentence is to say, the real people do not care about the quality tools are able to do a good job. "Dharma" refers to the end of last year in the movie "demon cat biography" and poet Bai Juyi to conduct air monk, in Japan, the air visibility can comparable with Bai Juyi in Chinese. Konghai died in AD 835 years, after being awarded the "Dharma Master" title.
The air in the birth of 774 years, once into the branch through college at the age of 18, after a period of time spent in practice. In May 804, he took the qiantangshi ship, as a foreign monk began Datang trip, and he was accompanied by the same tachibanano hayanari one of the three great calligrapher. After nearly half a year of sailing, arrived in Changan in December 804.
The air is good at poetry, Tang Dynasty and poets have exchanges (but there is no historical evidence can be empty and Bai Juyi have had exchanges). In the Tang Dynasty, has written a song. "In the Tang Dynasty Rishi however acrostic:" Jiannanchun ishidan dangerous difficult, or no beast stone risk. The dark candle many 1000, Shu people not too. The Tang Dynasty scholar Ma Zong see air poems, very surprised, then write a poem: "where is the nations, can be the only non hyun. By learning to help the natives of mystery, such as sub dilute."
These two poems are acrostic. A part of the first sentence of the first word of the first word is second words, a part of the first word of the first sentence of third words, fourth sentences and a part of the first two words form a theme (words). Konghai acrostic is a "fire" and "Deng", namely "lamp (light)", and the total horse acrostic constitute "the human" and "once", namely "monk". In our country, clutch poetry first appeared in the Han Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty, there was a climax, as poetry Yu, many poets are keen to acrostically writing, acrostic air should be closely related with the background.
The air clutch poetry instead of China poetry theory should also concern closely. As a poet, Konghai works included in the "soul set", and its focus on the China prose theory is reflected in the book "Wenjing MiFu Lun". "On" a book in 810S this paper mainly compiled Chinese mirror MiFu, prose theory. The direct cause of the air sea compilation of poetry creation theory books is "Hou Sheng", but the compilation of this book is the background when the Japanese literati of Han poetry creation enthusiasm.
The beginning of the 9 century, Japan is the early Heian period, China culture has been popular in Japan, especially in the literati, created by Chinese poetry articles (Chinese Poetry) day. But Han poetry creation has certain characteristics, such as antithesis and rhyme, do not know what will affect the level of creation of Chinese poetry. In order to solve this problem theoretically, Konghai compiled this collection of poetry theory books.
Konghai had to follow his uncle read "the Analects of Confucius", "book of filial piety, Han nationality, Chinese learning culture, into the branch through the University, is still hard to learn, read such as" Book of Songs "," Shang "," Tso Han Ji "etc.. 806 years, he returned to Japan from Chinese, in addition to a large number of Buddhist classics, also bring a lot of literary works, the literary creation theory of Wang Changling's "poetic style". (editor's note, said Wang Changling signed "Shi Ge"). Later, the air will be "Shi Ge" the content in "Wenjing MiFu Lun".
Konghai by Han Ji from his Chinese back in Compiling "Wenjing MiFu Lun", more use of the Han nationality has been spread to japan. Chinese in Japan has a long time, according to Japan's earliest literature "Kojiki" (712 years) recorded around third Century when the "Analects of Confucius" has been introduced to japan. With the passage of time, more and more Chinese in japan. 9 century "Japanese see in the book directory" in the collection of 1500 and 16000 volumes of the Han nationality. This number is very alarming, there are many books at the time of the China have disappeared.
"Wenjing MiFu Lun" is also true, some direct references to poetry theory works, such as (beam) after the "spectrum", (SUI) Liu Shanjing "Si Sheng Zhigui" (Tang Dynasty), shangguanyi "found" (Tang Dynasty), Liang Hua Yuan Jing "poem" myelencephal etc. that has been lost in our country. Among them, "poem" in a book "myelencephal Japanese see in the book directory" in a description. "Wenjing MiFu Lun" are references to "poetry" in the content of brain marrow. Not only that, the mid Heian period compilation of literary theory works "the composition generally has a lot of content" inherited "poem" brain marrow. In addition, the end of the era of peace, the famous poet Dajiang Kuang Heng (952-1012) who had "poem" according to the content of assessment of Cerebral Medullary poems. Thus, "poem" a Book myelencephalon era of peace in Japan, the popular people of all ages, and the air should be earlier use this person's.
In addition to his book, "Wenjing MiFu Lun" preserved in some extant literary theory works the book or text. There is no doubt that in terms of Air China to save the books in the input, use and is a representative figure.
Konghai with qiantangshi to Chinese, is Japan's Eleventh qiantangshi. Qiantangshi from the broad sense, 630 years since the first Japanese sent envoys to Japan in 838 years last sent envoys to the past 200 years, Japan dispatched 16 envoys to Chinese. (although if coupled with the appointment of special envoys did not make the trip two times and a "send off the Tang", is the 19.) But this policy, but because of a letter to Chinese scholars known as the "God of learning" and abolished.
Sugawara no Michizane
Sugawara Michima: learning, teaching, the use of China classics "the God of learning"
For 894 years, is the Japanese emperor UDA's reign, Sugawara Michima requested a letter sent envoys to the stop. Finally, his proposal was adopted. Who is Sugawara Michima? Why is his book can prevent the implementation of the national plan for 200 years? In fact, in Japan, Sugawara Michima's reputation is much greater than. As China's college entrance examination when approaching, many candidates or their parents will go to Confucian Temple to worship Confucius, the examination to obtain good results, many Japanese students and their parents also have such behavior, but their worship is Sugawara Michima.
Sugawara Michima was born in 845 years, the home for generations is the court official. Sugawara Michima was good, "hateful unknown ground school, the study window over time" ("Du Xing" is the twelfth lunar month) he took up at the age of 14. In fact, two years ago, 11 years he wrote his first poem "Moonlight see plum": "shine like a fine snow, like plum as star. Poor gold, jade Xin court room." The words and images directly, although somewhat immature, but the writing of poetry this remarkable talent.
Sugawara Michima used a poem to express his feelings in the ups and downs of life. 880 years of his father's death, the road really lost parents asylum, coupled by other scholars and scholars of jealousy, crowding, pressure, the mood is very depressed, "last year there was a coincidence, this slander poem (" clumsy "indignation" is his poetic mood). For 886 years, worked as a leader in the literary world, political heavyweights the road really left the capital, to the local official, for generations in the capital official kaibara family, this is undoubtedly a painful blow. "I will be full of air sea, more jealous of humanitarian demotion. Qian Yi. Non property, wandering Kongsheng temple before "(" North Hall "Banquet") on the feeling of anger.
The following year, Emperor UDA throne, as friends 890 said, back to the city. Since then, Daozhen's career is I wish you a happy voyage. sailing. 894 years, Sugawara Michima petitioned the emperor, asked to stop sending envoy to the Tang Dynasty, the emperor adopted his suggestion, that there is a certain relationship between emperor UDA appreciated and he was (of course there are more social and cultural reasons). 901 years, the road really was suddenly relegated to Dazaifu (today the Kyushu), on charges of any emperor UDA (four years ago, has abdicated his right) and attempted to put in a new emperor domineering etc.. Finally, Sugawara Michima spent the rest of his life in the dismal seclusion for 903 years, died in exile. Shortly before his death last chant poem "in spring" is this: "City surplus overflow Guo a few plum, and the scenery is the age of china. The wild goose foot will suspect Department sticky silk, at home thinking aconitum." Returning home shows between the lines.
Sugawara Michima's life time is in smooth water, ups and downs, but its brilliance no matter what the time is exudes a glittering luster. Especially in the understanding of the use of China classics, at the time it is rise above the common herd. At that time, the most famous notes "Chuang-tzu" books is Jin Guo Xiang's "Chuang-tzu note" and "Zhuang Zishu" the Tang Cheng xuanying. According to "Japanese see in the book directory" in the records, in addition to "note" and "Chuang-tzu Chuang-tzu Shu", including the now lost books, also have 19 description about "Chuang-tzu" book notes. Therefore, at the time of the Japanese, "Chuang-tzu" the high degree of concern with. This is from the University asked the home of Sugawara Michima's poetry can be glimpsed.
Sugawara Michima has written three songs titled "the North Sea", "small chapter chapter" and "knowledge" of the five chapter Yao sixteen words long, obviously these three poems is the chant of "Chuang-tzu" "in the text, the contents of the first tour" ("first" in the "peripateticism North fish" and "little know as big" and "Yao Xu from the kingdom in the statement). In the three poems before "preface", the author clearly pointed out: "the wording is written according to the rhyme. If there is a dark, see the article will open." That is to say, the poem in the wording, rhyme according to Cheng Xuanying (Tang Dynasty Taoist scholars) as "Chuang-tzu" for the notes. For example, "North Sea" chapter of the last sentence "comfort with Xiaoyao" from "Zhuang Zishu" and "happy adaptation", "little known" chapter "know clearly at the beginning of two years short and dark, can repair" from "Zhuang Zishu", "Chi Ming dark years, or short or long".
In addition, there are many verses to Sugawara Michima "Chuang-tzu". Such as: "this evening without him, but the first article" "sad old Wei Dan containing pearl mussel, Zhuang Zhou Wei ghost cry" chilling "is not always a man, please me" "three hundred flowers over the sea, the foreign affairs always forget" etc.. Sugawara Michima repeatedly chant and the "Chuang-tzu" of poetry, it is clear that he is known as "Chuang-tzu" and get some sympathy from "Chuang-tzu" in the. He put the books into Chinese understanding emotional vents, into poetry, the poet uses a model of China classics.
Although the wind included "bosom algae" for 751 years in the compilation of male first name "Xi Wen Hao Liang theory, this differentiation of fish" ("autumn feast") verses earlier than Sugawara Michima for a long time, but there is no doubt that to Daozhen's, the poet in full reading, understanding based on Chinese classics that will experience, emotional projection itself in the literature implication, then sublimated into concise verses. This creative way will improve the use of Chinese classics to a new level.
Murasakisikibu: the use of China classics for the creation of female first Robert Pattinson
Sugawara Michima recommended to the court to stop sending envoys to Chinese, its background is Japan to develop its own culture (Japan called "national culture") needs. From the beginning of the end of ninth Century, "national culture" banner fluttering up gradually. With the emergence of Japanese kana characters, especially among the women, "national culture" boom of a wave after wave. One of the most representative of the "Nongchao people" is murasakisikibu.
Murasakisikibu was born in the Fujiwara family, the noble family to murasakisikibu parents basically has declined. Murasakisikibu was not her real name, not only that, murasakishikibu's birth year is also no accurate statement (presumably probably born in about 973 years, probably died in 1020). The reason why people called her type, probably because her father Fujiwara is served as a type of Cheng. Known as the "purple" is because she creates a lady called female image in "the tale of Genji", this image is impressive.
Murasakisikibu was born, although his father has The family is in straitened circumstances., but the knowledge and the cultivation of literature or China extraordinary. "The tale of Genji" is a novel murasakisikibu creation. In this novel, the use of murasakishikibu on China classics to reach the acme of perfection. Especially in the use of Bai Juyi's poetry, to plot ideas, text structure, small verse references, murasakishikibu xinshounianlai, left very deep impression. For example, "the tale of Genji" the first volume of "Tong pot" said the empress kiritsubo (concubine) dressing cosseted, "as long as she lives around, almost do not leave for a moment", "sometimes the emperor got up late, this day put the dressing around, don't put her back to his palace to the end," is the "song" in the "night bitter short day high, not from King zaozhao. To feast without leisure, spring outing night from rewriting ".
"The tale of Genji" volume tenth "Yang Tong" described in the barnacle queen in the pot after the death of Emperor Tong, a monk, "she recalled in Tong pot for her meticulous love school and sincere words, feel the times changed, everything changed. I am not even by Madam Qi fate, also must make one joke."
Here said "Madam Qi fate" clearly refers to "records about Madam Qi Shiji" or "Han": Madam Qi get the Han Emperor Liu Bang's pet, to establish their own son Liu Ruyi prince, but under the pressure of ministers, Liu Bang has not made Liu Ruyi prince. After the death of Liu Bang, the son of lvhou Liu Ying ascended the throne, then madam Qi imprisoned, let her all day tsuishine. Madam Qi beishangyujue, but was eventually lvhou torture into "Ren Zhi". The fate of Qi lady, murasakishikibu just beyond that, and not specifically say what madam Qi's fate, it can be inferred that the author not only knew how madam Qi fate, more readers also fully understand the idea of Qi lady fate. There are many such references in "the tale of Genji", it should be on the China murasakisikibu books are very familiar with, not only that, reading "the tale of Genji" readers should refer to the author is also well aware of the.
"A book in the middle of the 8 century has been introduced to Japan, the Japanese continued" Ji "(757) has a" historical records "record. "Japanese see in the book directory" recorded in a version of the "historical records". Because of this understanding of the Chinese historical accumulation, when 1934 Japanese sinologist Takigawa Rtaro (1865-1946) published the "historical records" research will note, immediately attracted the attention of people, the detailed version of the important reference data, research, careful at that time no one left out. In fact, since the past 80 years, the book still has some reference value.
"Eight Zhang" kyokutei Bakin Yee on Kazu Saie
Cutting Ma Yisi: the use of Master Chinese Popular Novels
The Edo period (1603-1867), the Han nationality spread in Japan and accepted and reached another peak. During the Edo period, the emergence of new features, the introduction of a large number of Chinese popular novels in Chinese input of course, and the popular novels of Ming and Qing Dynasties in China especially developed are closely related. Kyokutei Bakin is quite famous novelist during the Edo era, was born in 1767, the surname dragon Ze, a prosperous, is the creation of popular literature kyokutei Bakin used when, in addition, he has hidden alias Suo Li yu.
In 1791, his first popular literary works (Huang Biaozhi) "and the two" as with Kyogen publishing. In 1802, the horse went to Kyoto, Osaka area (then known as the "top" travel). Through travel and "above" literati exchanges, Ma Qin literature talent in a novel called "the reader" play, in 1804, he published the first reading novels "ice romance", since then, he in reading novels a get out of hand, after also published a novel "ancient Japanese literary history the longest always see eight dogs in the South" (1814-1842), Ma Qin's literary career reached its peak.
"Eight dogs" draw a large number of Chinese vernacular novels in the nutrient, especially the "Water Margin". "The Water Margin" in the Edo period is especially favored by the people, became the object of many scholars study, imitation of the Edo period. The horse wants to create comparable to the "Water Margin" works. Finally he saw eight dogs who choose in the family as the hero, around the eight dogs, the unfolding of the plot. In addition to the "Water Margin", but also the horse to absorb nutrients from the "Three Kingdoms" and other popular literary works.
"Eight dog biography" start description of eight dogs, origin, and the "Water Margin" "wedge" in the "Hong Wei wrongway demon" is exactly the same, "the Water Margin" the description given to inspire the idea on the horse. "Biography" in the eight dogs one hundred and thirty-nine times a plot and narrative order of the "Water Margin" by Yang Zhiyi brutes Liang Zhongshu and Zhou Jiang Wei Yuan Fengzheng guard dog life and will contest with cable, super contest scene is very similar, even he Wu is taken off the gun tip to avoid wounding details are as like as two peas.
It is particularly worth mentioning is that the horse in the creation of "8 dogs", imitation method is used in our country are put forward in the comment of novels, such as subject and object, V line, lining dye, reference, against, pen, the so-called "legend novel esoteric rule 7". These rules are actually descendants (Jin Shengtan and Mao Zonggang) in reading the "Water Margin", "Three Kingdoms" and other works are summed up, Ma Qin read these comments Chinese novels, so people can make full use of the rules of creation are summarized, despite the "suspicious theory first", but when we read "8 dogs", still can feel the understanding of these theories is just perfect. "Volt line" is a common technique of Chinese ancient novels. Can be seen everywhere in the "biography" in eight dogs. For example, "eight dog biography" article seven back to the description of the golden bowl died when a Dutch act hachiro, Wisp, "like a woman's shadow suddenly disappeared in Daisuke". This is the thirteen time gold golden bowl bowl Daisuke shot eight real hachiro, appeared in a scene in front of the Ji volt volt line.
"The Water Margin" was introduced to Japan's specific time has not test, but we can learn from the Japanese monk Tianhai (1536-1643) see "Water Margin" is the name of the library catalogue in early seventeenth Century, so that the "Water Margin" has been introduced to Japan is probably not a problem. "The Water Margin" was introduced into Japan, imitation, reverse for the emergence of a large number of Hunan, such as "eight male biography" "the Water Margin" in the "Water Margin" Japanese "female" Water Margin "loyal Water Margin" etc.. But no matter from reading, understanding, or from imitation, reverse perspective, kyokutei Bakin is second to none.