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Artist Wu Guanzhong was born poor in art thanks to the teacher's visit to Paris, never stop learning and eventually became everybody

2018-06-25 09:35 beijing evening news TF2018

Stand in the time of the shoulders back, China painting foundation of Wu Guanzhong is not deep, the traditional painting China understanding may be much better than his teacher Pan Tianshou, perhaps because of this, Wu Guanzhong had the courage and the ability to "push" the traditional China paintings of the "Chen", to create a "new" China painting. He is not deep, is likely to have its meaning but forget its shape, its soul and abandon its shell.

Author: Sun Xiaofei


Life changing encounter with Zhu Dequn

Wu Guanzhong said his boyhood is "bitter life", and in fact most people at that time than, these are just small fresh small pain". He said in the readme, "my family has ten acres of paddy fields, than the rich poor households, but more than the poor households can barely close to that of the local communities for well-off family, the child grows up, life has become more and more difficult. * my toilet and cattle, huddled together on the toilet very smelly, I often go to the edge of the field to go pee, father is not banned, but said the urine scattered in their own fields, that is fat. I have also raised a chicken, only about five or six. It was dark, chicken in their home into the nest. So to carry the lamp to count the number of chicken, will be less of A. Then shut the door again."

Such a life, a rich pastoral flavor, but in the eyes of Wu Guanzhong, this is all grey as he said, cannot bear to think of the past, "childhood cognitive bitter is poor".

Wu Guanzhong was born in 1919 in the north gate of Jiangsu Qu Cun township of Yixing County, which is a typical Jiangnan, people rely mainly on rice, sericulture, fishing. Jiangnan wets, Wu Guanzhong and Xu Beihong's hometown of Wuxi, is the talent of the times.

Wu Guanzhong's father is a small rural school teachers, and the fields of farmers. While his mother, is a family of polahu born illiterate. Such a family, let Wu Guanzhong was a bookish, but also her mother left "buckeen gas", even the farmers father's pristine gas. These breath, mixed in Wu Guanzhong, Wu Guanzhong formed a unique personal charm.

For the mother, Wu Guanzhong has deep feelings. The mother of all, in his view, there is a kind of innate poetic, so poetic, perhaps by gene into Wu Guanzhong's body, let the stubborn rural children, with some always melancholy and moody. Wu Guanzhong said the mother, "the illiteracy is not necessarily the United States blind mother, quite aesthetic talent, her sensitive feelings". The mother on his sensitive temperament, may cause her pain of insomnia, such as temperament, is not easy to get along with people, which makes between her and her husband, "really a bit incompatible". Such a character, more or less influence on Wu Guanzhong.

Wu Guanzhong is suffering from insomnia from the middle age, the old disease more serious". In Wu Guanzhong's opinion, insomnia, "the most is the life of suffering". Wu Guanzhong said: "I feel that my poor mother, God and wouldn't let me inherit father healthy nerve. No life of freedom, bitter gourd rattan bear on is bitter melon seeds, my old age made a painting "bitter home". Bitter, haunt me forever, into the heart." However, such a life of "bitter", for his fellow, one day walk for miles and miles around a school to teach Xu Beihong, seems worth mentioning.

When Wu Guanzhong was 6 years old, his father founded a private primary school in Wu Wu hall support and trust, and by the turn of the Wu Wu hall accounting primary school principal, Wu Guanzhong became the Wu Temple houses so the first rural primary school classroom for students.

Wu Guanzhong recalls, the primary school, even the father of three teachers, two grade in a classroom, students are a group of drag a buddy."

At that time Wu Guanzhong, and art no fate, always holding the book, eager to learn. After graduating from primary school, he was admitted to the town and the goose Hill Primary School, live in the home to 10 and bridge, began boarding.

Small age, everything is going to take care of themselves, which at the time of the boarding school is almost normal. Perhaps when young, often catch the chicken into the cage lantern experience, the majority of family's eldest son, in the home in 10 primary, dealing with your personal life, did not feel any pressure, learning achievement is also very good. A semester, the humble Wu Guanzhong score the first in his class. This result, inspired the Wu Jiaquan family, also inspired by Wu Guanzhong himself, "high school graduation, the school, south of the famous school I all dare for, confident and sure."

But for a multi family, father should consider not only the eldest son's growth, but also to consider the affordability of the family, Wu Guanzhong considered children growth opportunities, therefore, although Wu Guanzhong has shown superhuman ability to learn, but his father refused to let him one exclusive development opportunities, has been to the primary school Wu Guanzhong, faced with the task of how to employment as soon as possible, to become one of economic sources in the home.

Wu Guanzhong said in the readme: father heard Luoshe has rural teachers, not cost, as a country junior teachers four years after graduation, but very difficult to test, because of the poor students. I am not afraid of hard, not only had a small staff, is not our primary school as school teacher: wu! Wuxi Provincial Normal School, when the teacher of primary school after graduation, as goose Hill Primary School teacher. But before reading the free high school teacher pay to read three years of junior high school. Home to do everything possible to Nabe Uritetsu, let me read three years of junior high school, I was admitted to Wuxi normal school. With excellent results, I almost every semester for the Education Department of Jiangsu Province, poor students scholarships, bonuses to tens of dollars, it seems to the public, greatly reducing the pressure at home.

Wu Guanzhong Hill Primary School destined not to gifted goose, even his father was not a plan to live according to his son. When should enter the normal study, Wu Guanzhong's "ambition", or "desire", with the age of expansion. He said: "in the readme finished junior high school, I do not want to enter the training department, for students at normal university students is Rice porridge, no future. I changed the electric department, Zhejiang University, provincial industrial occupation school candidates agency industrial salvation, way of security, but more difficult to test. I admitted, but does not will be the fate of God into the confusion of the sky."

If according to this path, Wu Guanzhong would like his compatriot Qian Weichang, become a famous science and technology; or at least as another of his fellow like Qian Zhongshu, has become a cultural celebrity, but his parents and he himself did not think he went after the end of a road is not the same.

At that time, the provisions of the education system, college freshmen to collective military training. Wu Guanzhong in the Zhejiang industrial high school occupation finished a year later, to military training in the summer. During military training, he and the Hangzhou national art college preparatory Zhu Dequn (later Wu Guanzhong, Zhu Dequn and Zhao Wuji called "the Three Musketeers") was compiled in the same company in the same class. He met with Zhu Dequn, Wu Guanzhong changed his life. Wu Guanzhong told this change: "one Sunday, he took me to visit their school. I saw unprecedented pictures and sculptures, strong was strange world, perhaps like the baby bear his eyes. I began to face beauty, beauty is so charming, she easily hit a young heart, she captured many prisoners for her virginity, most willing to enslave captives. 17 I threw myself at her feet and head toward the heroic beauty of the universe, completely forget that I am a poor farmer, children, in order to make a living on the motor after finally admitted into the Zhejiang University senior engineer."

That year is 1936 year, 17 year old Wu Guanzhong. It is from then on, he is like a Pibuken joined the Mustang, "determination, even hard to abandon the electric department, transferred into art from scratch".

My father is sad and disappointed I can see. The father objected, "because he heard that the painter had no way out". For a poor family, practical, art more directly than ever.

But fortunately, although her father objected, but he did not stop Wu Guanzhong's choice. My father watched the 17 year old son, embarked on a road he probably didn't know the future road.

In traditional Chinese painting and Western painting art in Hangzhou

However, before this, Wu Guanzhong and no artistic skills, without art training system. The young juniors, when venturing into the Mousika home, still ignorant, compared with those who had art generation, is of poor quality. Fortunately, the accumulation of knowledge and cultural heritage of the early, let Wu Guanzhong have capital to catch up from behind while the art foundation, but poor Wu Guanzhong by the innate intelligence and diligence, is now on a firm footing.

Fortunately, Wu Guanzhong caught up with the times China best art. Founded in 1928, the National Art Academy of Hangzhou, the first president is just from the Beijing National Art College President on departure by Lin Fengmian. That year, Cai Yuanpei because of their support, seniority is shallow Lin Fengmian, but it made a popular performance. Lin Fengmian teachers, many students returned from France: Lin Wenzheng, Wu Dayu, Cai Weilian (daughter of Cai Yuanpei, one of the important painters of the early twentieth Century), Li Chaoshi, Lei Guiyuan, Liu Kaiqu, Fang Qianmin, were accepted the western modern art education elite.

These students returned to the painter and art educator, cultivation method of Chinese students, with their French teacher identical to teaching from the perspective of teaching methods, and almost no two by france.

The school library, art also from France to Russia, then realistic art occupies the main position of art education system China, not into the school's teaching framework, so that later Wu Guanzhong heard Repin's name, even very strange.

In modern western art to completely open at the same time, Lin Fengmian asked the students first the basic skills for the modeling of sketch is full of feeling. The school regulations, all freshmen, have three years to learn sketch in middle school, and then officially entered college.

Such harsh requirements, for other students a good foundation, perhaps is a kind of suffering, but for the non art foundation of Wu Guanzhong, just can fill in the past left the course, so as to lay a solid foundation.

There is information that the art of Wu Guanzhong teacher, his father's old friend Miu Zuyao. In Wu Guanzhong's "Zero Ink" in the book, Wu Guanzhong describes what the teacher said: "he will be painting, landscape painting, painting red rose and peony paintings, the woodcutter and fisherman. A father with a strawboard pen, paste on the white paper, Miao teacher draw a fisherman, a bird and a large clam on top, painted after this painting is explained to me the story."

No data show that Wu Guanzhong and Miao learned to draw more Zuyao, there is no evidence of Wu Guanzhong at the time, began to study painting. Analysis of transfer from Wu Guanzhong readme class information in the article, Wu Guanzhong Miu Zuyao teacher of painting, probably only children leisure. Wu Guanzhong love to the teacher at the time was delayed, and the other about "careful thinking": "his rest always told me to take some small shops to buy copper, candy cakes such as snacks, every time a piece of me."

This is a small snack, for many, the financial difficulties of Wu Guanzhong brothers, a great temptation.

It can be said that no further studied painting Wu Guanzhong, just in the Hangzhou National College of art learning, from the traditional burden, and embrace a new world.

However, in the Hangzhou art department set up to take Chinese and Western views on education, the same deep influence on Wu Guanzhong. Non traditional skills China painted by Wu Guanzhong, is under the leadership of Pan Tianshou, China on art history and traditional painting techniques Chinese a peek. Wu Guanzhong followed Pan Tianshou, learned a year of Chinese painting, "a copy of Shi Tao, Hong Ren, eight, and four yuan bridge landscape painter works".

This year, perhaps only Wu Guanzhong of China painting introductory training, but also caused Wu Guanzhong deep love of traditional Chinese painting. In November 1937, the school began in exile led by President Lin Fengmian, as the war spread, hiding, eight years in school has moved seven times. Wu Guanzhong in the memories of the article said: "the school continues to transfer, all the way a Japanese aircraft bombing in Hunan, Yuanling, almost every two or three days have an alarm, but did not really bomb, so I just stay in the alarm sound library management staff will make copying paintings, I locked inside, he he went up the mountain into the dugout."

In 1938, Lin Fengmian because of various reasons, had resigned from the president, the art education idea is also a result of the significant changes. In 1939, the Hangzhou National Art College of traditional Chinese painting and Western painting formal separation. Wu Guanzhong finally gave up the traditional Chinese painting, Western painting elective, but he said: "the Chinese painting factors are constantly in my thoughts and feelings of deep fermentation, and with the passage of learning and the accumulation of years, I feel more and more, traditional Chinese painting and Western painting have different tools, but in the nature of art are the same."

Stand in the time of the shoulders back, China painting foundation of Wu Guanzhong is not deep, the traditional painting China understanding may be much better than his teacher Pan Tianshou, perhaps because of this, Wu Guanzhong had the courage and the ability to "push" the traditional China paintings of the "Chen", to create a "new" China painting. He is not deep, is likely to have its meaning but forget its shape, its soul and abandon its shell.

Study of Paris oil painting research

1942 years, Hangzhou National Art College after graduating from Wu Guanzhong, became an assistant professor of Chongqing University. 1946 years, Wu Guanzhong was admitted to the national scholarship to study abroad painting first. The art of God let Wu Guanzhong temporarily abandoned China painting, Western painting back to hometown to drink Western nutrition, back nurture and transform China painting, and finally let the traditional painting China transform heaven and earth in his hands, change rapidly.

1947 in the spring, Wu Guanzhong left her parents and married his wife Zhu Biqin, from Paris to France China. He was "looking at the endless road" arrived in Paris described in the thrill of the scene: "I went to Paris, is not a dream, really, really arrived in Paris."

In France, under the tutelage of Wu Guanzhong, Su skin, oil painting into the national Academy of Fine Arts in Paris, Professor Su leather training studio. Mr. Su skin not only deeply influenced by Wu Guanzhong's concept of art, but also in the problem of returning or not, for Wu's choice will give strong support.

In 1950, Wu Guanzhong returned to Wu Guanzhong, Mr. Su skin Valediction: "art is a crazy feeling, I cannot teach you, maybe your decision is right, you should go back to China, from the traditional foundation of you before seventeenth Century issued to shoot."

The French overseas experience, completely changed Wu Guanzhong.

Wu Guanzhong himself wrote a paragraph of text, helps us understand his French teacher, and Wu Dayu Pan Tianshou, who in the end is.

In France, Wu Guanzhong accepted the education and training, is Chinese teachers never imagined the scene: "I am studying in Paris, we received four studio murals of Paris Academy of music: classical music, medieval music, romantic music and modern music. When is the first draft of the sketch creation, the four characteristic of the music form abstract composition, for example, to the balanced and harmonious layout to show classical and elegant, with unrestrained turmoil to praise the romantic passion group...... Then the organization of characters: dance girl, get a harp musician and poet Homa...... The combination of these figures, the relationship between high and low, transverse, oblique, straight and curved must adapt closely to form first abstract shape line composition, rhythm characteristics to ensure each outstanding works."

There is no doubt that such training, not only there is a world of difference with the traditional Chinese painting, with a generation of painters understanding of Western painting, also be quite different. Mr. Su skin on Wu Guanzhong's guidance, beyond the scope of most traditional China painters can understand: using lines to represent abstract music melody, rather than reproducing specific images; the music image, at the same time can be fully used in line, but beyond the visual range of objects.

From this description, it is easy to find that the abstract elements of Wu Guanzhong in painting, and such learning background. Because of this experience, only the innovation of Wu Guanzhong Chinese revolutionary painting.

Rural life to Chinese painting

In 1950, Wu Guanzhong returned home, taught at the China Central Academy of Fine Arts. In 1953, Wu Guanzhong was transferred to the Department of architecture of Tsinghua University Professor color pure skill course. From the "Central America" Wu Guanzhong, also want to do an era into the era, can accept the painter, but the frustration is that age always have their own preferences, has its own law value. The last century in 50s, does not belong to wu.

His student Wang Zhijie recalled that Mr. Wu painted gongnongbing life paintings reflect "a red flower". "At that time, he lived in the cinder alley. One day he took me to see his latest book. After the door, I saw him hanging on the wall with a piece of cloth. He put the cloth on the spot opened, I was scared. In one of the old men sitting in a chair, body cloth, wear bajiaomao. Because Mr. Wu of post impressionist painter Cezanne and other style has a special liking, face, clothes, hats, all with blue also slightly yellow soil. Not only the chest a big red flower." Wang Zhijie said to Wu Guanzhong, "the working class can only fire red tone, full of red blood to reflect. This works out quite terrible consequences if published."

To move closer to the mainstream art view, Wu Guanzhong was an active choice, but the result makes him very disappointed. Helpless, Wu Guanzhong chose the landscape painting. During this period, let the domestic arts impressed, he works is the 1959 Jinggangshan Tibet sketch painting and in 1961, a student of Xu Beihong in "Ai Zhongxin talk" in the painting style said: "very focused on Wu Guanzhong's ink magic essence, his oil painting color pen tips and the sense of music increasingly apparent in his recent works in landscape painting."

1970, who was the "art" teachers Wu Guanzhong and all the teachers and students went to Hebei Huolu Licun. Here, but the art of Wu Guanzhong in the village to buy a small blackboard written quotations for Sketchpad, or as a manure basket easel, adhere to his art, students joked that he is "manure basket painter".

Objectively speaking, this period of life, a great influence on Wu Guanzhong. He said in the article, "the illiteracy is not equal to the United States blind. My painting is figurative, the villagers see...... When I draw bad, failed, they still like, very good, I feel cheated them, feel guilty; when I draw a success, he is very satisfied with, the villagers saw the painting, he called up: Yes ah!"

At that time, Wu Guanzhong's painting of sorghum, corn, melon, pomegranate, or red, or yellow, full of exciting natural light." The color and the rhythm of dot and line sensitive observation and treatment, Wu Guanzhong is different from the others in artistic quality. For example, the same is the countryside in the mulberry field, in his eyes, but also in a densely crisscross line structure, therefore, the general picture of the familiar scene, he could also find special form of beauty from the village in the hills and fields; constantly in the election for the purpose is to observe the position. In order to find, selection, distribution, organization and reasonable composition is picturesque". Therefore, the same country life, but not the same feeling of art to Wu Guanzhong. This experience, let Wu Guanzhong involuntarily immersed in the art of purgatory, to take the initiative to give up with a strong color of Western painting, and gradually shift with a strong cultural meaning of the painting Chinese China.

After 1976, Wu Guanzhong came of age. The river becomes warm in spring, Wu Guanzhong sensitive to predict a new era is about to open, so he was out for a long time at the throat, clear voice, sing boldly towards a new era. 1979 years 5 months, Wu Guanzhong in the "art" magazine published "form beauty" painting of a text, talk about the art form in public, causing repercussions in the art world China strong. In this provocative article, Wu Guanzhong put forward a slogan: since the effect of oil paintings to nationalization, Chinese painting must be modernized.

In March 1980, Wu Guanzhong published "the art" art "cannot do without the beauty of human body of" one article, pointed out the beauty of the human body is the basic skills of plastic arts. In this paper, knowledge of Wu Guanzhong a deep analysis of the western modern art style beauty, from the beauty of the human body.

In October of that year, he in the "art" magazine published an article about "abstract beauty", "abstract beauty that is the core of" the beauty of form, in order to let people not to be too strong to stimulate his ideas, Wu Guanzhong proposed that abstract cultural resources not only from the west, in Chinese traditional painting, there are this form is more an artist's painting style Chinese, express the abstract world. The number of published articles, let Wu Guanzhong at home and abroad famous art world fame, Chinese Artists Association of Jiangsu and Jiangsu Art Museum as he co sponsored the "Wu Guanzhong Art Exhibition", he also served as the six national art exhibition "in the first two years of the judges, and in 1985 years, at the age of 66, become the country members of the cppcc.

The study of art history professor Mike Sullivan said: the only published text is sufficient to enable him to occupy a space for one person in the world. Especially his strong, concise and honest expression, comparable with his admiration for Van Gogh.

But he said, "the more the more I feel to his painting technique is not important, the most important connotation. The plane painting art has limitations, many feelings are unable to show, not as a social like literature." He also said: "I do not learn the painting, I should study literature, be like Lu Xun writer. From this perspective, I was painting a negative." However, from this point of view of innovation Chinese painting, Wu Guanzhong's life is not a negative picture.

During the Anti Japanese War, Wu Guanzhong attended the Hangzhou National Art College moved to Chongqing Bishan. The young Wu Guanzhong saw the girl wearing a red jacket and local, one day he whim, made a Dahongpao wearing. 23:57 on June 25, 2010, Wu Guanzhong died in Beijing at the age of 91. "Mr. Wu went on an old red jacket, a pair of feet before painting wear sneakers." His student Liu Jude sad to say.

 

Source: Beijing Evening News

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