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How to eat the ancient Lantern Festival? In the Song Dynasty, fried food was eaten with sugar.

2018-03-01 15:38. beijing evening news TF010

"On the night of last year, the flower market lights were like daylight. Month to the tip of the willow, after the evening. Tomorrow night is the "Yuan night" written by Ou Yangxiu in the Northern Song Dynasty. The Lantern Festival is also called "Lantern Festival", also known as "Shang Yuan Festival" and "Lantern Festival". Enjoying the moon, watching the lights and guessing riddles are the three themes of the Lantern Festival. "Lantern Festival" is the name of the festival. When did it become a diet name? Why are there "Yuan Zi", "Yuan Zi", "dumplings", "floating seeds", "powder balls", "glutinous rice balls" and "sugar Yuanbao" for "Yuanxiao"?

Author: Ni Fangliu


The lantern of the boy in his new year's painting "making lantern" symbolizes the bumper grain harvest and the prosperity of the nation.

Is the name of "Tang Yuan" coming from Yuan Shikai?

Ming Liu Ruoyu "Ming Gong Shi": "eat Lantern Festival, its making method with glutinous rice noodle......" That is the so-called "Tangyuan" in the south of the Yangtze River.
Eat Lantern Festival on Lantern Festival. Qing Xu Ke's "barnyard pits and diet two" said: "Tang yuan," the "dumpling". The northern people call it "the Lantern Festival", and the night of the above yuan will be eaten. The Lantern Festival, which is the festival name, has become the name of dieting. It should be in the Ming Dynasty. Ming Liu Ruoyu's "Ming Gong Shi Zheng Yue", which is called dumpling, is also introduced in detail. That is the "dumpling" in the south of the Yangtze River. In the notes and historical materials of Tang and Song Dynasties, the dumpling is not called "Yuanxiao".

The Lantern Festival is also known as the "dumpling". There is also a very popular saying. When Yuan Shikai became president of the Republic of China, he banned the "Yuanxiao" homophonic "Yuan Xiao" and then renamed the "dumpling" in the two year of 1913. However, I did not find out the relevant contents from the compilation of Yuan Shikai's history archives and culture (the second China Historical Archives), which signed a cultural related document during his reign. From the above records of Ming Gong history, Yuan Shikai's renamed "dumpling" is not reliable. The name of "dumpling" has long been popular in the north and the south. In the forty-four year of Qing Dynasty Qianlong, Hebei, "Ninghe County Chronicles", "year old folk custom" said: "before and after the new year's Eve, the town lights up for three days. Eat dumplings. " Moreover, if Yuan Shikai really put the "Lantern Festival" as the "dumpling", the name of "Lantern Festival" should be changed. During the two years (1913) to the five years of the Republic of China (1913), the two words of "Lantern Festival" should not appear in the chronicles of the reign of the Republic of Korea in the Republic of China (1916). In the four year of the Republic of China, "Shunyi county records" in Beijing said, "it is the day (January fifteen), making the Lantern Festival fruit feed." The "Lantern Festival fruit" is the glutinous rice dumpling.

Photo: the Qing Dynasty Tianjin Yang Liu youth painting "celebrate the Lantern Festival" depicts the northern family through the Lantern Festival custom.

However, Yuan Shikai and the "Lantern Festival" do have an uncontrollable relationship. According to the Chinese bamboo Zhi Ci Beijing, when the Republic of China signed the "bamboo song of the valley millet", the bamboo branch words of the capital miscellaneous chanting and Lantern Festival said: "just watch the bottom sink and drift. When he sold to shout a son two, when Hong Xian was afraid of the Lantern Festival. Yuan Shikai changed his name to Hongxian when he was Emperor. He only had 83 days to ascend to the throne, so that he was able to die in June 6, 1916 and really "Yuan Xiao". In the streets of Beijing, a ballad was soon heard: "the president, Hong Xiannian, eats fifteen yuan in the first month. Tang yuan, a mother of the Lantern Festival, Emperor Hong Xian's life is not long. Yuan Shikai is a superstitious man. He had many taboos before his life. "Fear of Lantern Festival" is possible. Yuan Jia and his neighbors do not want to say "Yuanxiao" to please him. Perhaps it is because "Hong Xian is afraid of the Lantern Festival" that it popularized the "Lantern Festival" method that was not popular in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. From the beginning of the Republic of China, the "Lantern Festival" and "Lantern Festival", which were mainly used in the north, became popular throughout the country. Even the southerners who used to call "Tangyuan" called "Yuanxiao".

When did the custom of eating glutinous rice balls on Lantern Festival begin?

In the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhou Bida's "Yuanxiao Zhui Yuzi": "stars in the dark clouds, beads float muddy water".

There are many ways to call lanterns, such as "Yuan Zi", "Yuan Zi", "Tuan Zi", "Yuanxiao Zi", "Reunion", "Lantern circle", "Lantern circle" and so on. At first, there was a difference between the round and the dumplings. The round had no stuffing, it was solid, and it was eaten with sugar. There was a sweet stuffing in the dumplings, and no sugar needed to be eaten. By the time of Qing Dynasty, there was not much difference between the ball and the ball, and the circle was also stuffed.

Photo: the Qing Dynasty Tianjin Yang Liu youth painting "celebrate the Lantern Festival" depicts the northern family through the Lantern Festival custom.

"Glutinous rice dumpling" is derived from ripening, cooked in boiling soup and eaten after cooking. It is also known as "dumplings" and "water masses". It is floated up after cooked, and the ancients are also called "floating circles". Because glutinous rice flour is made, it is also known as "powder group", "glutinous rice circle", "sticky Yuan Bao" and "water mill pill". Because most of the stuffing is sugar or sweet stuffing, also known as "sugar group", "sugar yuan" and "sugar Yuan Bao".

Today, all kinds of stuffing dumplings, such as sugar filling, bean paste filling, sesame stuffing, meat stuffing, vegetarian stuffing and so on, are available in ancient times. In Ming Han Yi's "Yi Fang Yi Yi", "water group" records: "the fine glutinous rice powder is wet with a little sugar as filling, and it is big for marble and cooked." In Ming song Xu, "Song's health department" "Shui Mo pill", it said: "stuffing with white sugar, peeled walnuts, hazel, pine nuts, or honey bean paste, boil in boiling soup." Qing Yuan Mei "Suiyuan food list" "radish dumplings" record: "radish shaved silk, cooked, remove odors, micro dry, add onions, sauce mix, put in the group as stuffing."

When the custom of eating dumplings on Lantern Festival appeared, it should be in the Song Dynasty. In the Southern Song Dynasty, Zhou Da Da's "Yuanxiao Zhu Yu Zi Zi" has already mentioned the cooking soup. Tang Guan looks for the old flavor, and the kitchen slave is surprised at the new work. Clouds float in the clouds. When I was young, I wrote about it. The "bead" here is the floating circle, that is, the tangyuan. But before the Song Dynasty, it did not see the record of eating dumplings on Lantern Festival.

So what did the ancients eat before the Lantern Festival in the Song Dynasty? The popular Lantern Festival in the Tang Dynasty was a kind of food called "Xi Xi" (the word "Xi" "Xi" "Yu" "changed" into "insect"). "Face seal" is a kind of pasta, a bit like steamed bread. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Lv Yuanming's "year old miscellany" called "thick skin steamed bread". Face X is also a kind of gambling and entertainment equipment. The five generation of Wang Renyu's "Kaiyuan Tianbao relics" records: "every fifteen to the first month of the year, it creates a face seal, with official posts, high official positions or gambling banquet. "Because the face seal is eaten in spring, also known as the" spring seal ", because it can be used as an official name. In addition to the "face seal", some places eat "jade cake" on Lantern Festival. The five generation of Feng Zhi's "Yun Xian miscellaneous notes" cited the "Golden Gate year old festival", "the Luoyang year old festival", the Luoyang family in the Tang Dynasty and the East. "On the fifteen day of the first lunar month, they made fire moth and eat jade cake. "After the advent of Lantern Festival, some people in some places do not necessarily eat yuanxiao. In the book of the year, Guangji recorded a kind of mixed broth called "salt and black bean soup" in the Northern Song Dynasty.

Is the Lantern Festival cooked and eaten?

In the Northern Song Dynasty, Chen Yuanliang's "year old time Guang Ji": "the capital festival in Beijing is the most prosperous and long".

Cooking the Lantern Festival in boiling soup to cook this modern popular method should also be a method of eating invented by the Northern Song Dynasty. Chen Yuanliang's "year of the year", "selling dieting", introduces "miscellaneous notes at the age of age": "Jing (Kaifeng)" people use mung bean powder as a fighting soup, boiled glutinous rice as pills, sugar as jelly, and called "salt bean sauce". They are all on the yuan diet. "Cooking glutinous rice balls" is to cook yuanxiao.

Photo: the Peabody Isaacs Museum in the United States stores the scene of making Chinese lanterns with water polished paintings of Chinese customs and polished glutinous rice noodles.

But in ancient times, "cooking the Lantern Festival" was just one of the ways to eat. At first, it was not the mainstream. There were many ways to eat the early Lantern Festival, and fried fried dumplings and fried fried dumplings. Qu Dajun's "Guangdong Xin Yu and eating language" "tea" is called "Guangzhou's custom". At the end of the year, a glutinous valley was burst by fire. The name was "gun Valley", which was thought to be stuffed with heart. The fried dumplings are made of glutinous flour, round and round, frying in oil, and offering sacrifices to friends and relatives. This fried rice dumplings are known as "fried dumplings" and can still be eaten. According to Qing Lu's "Qing Jiaolu": "Shang Yuan, the city people rice flour as a pill," said the circle. Use flour to make stuffing, make cake, fry, and oil, and offer sacrifices to God. This fried Guangzhou lantern is also known as "oil", except for sacrificial offerings. In addition, Suzhou and other places in the Yangtze River basin also have the custom of blasting fifteen yuan in the first month.

When the Lantern Festival exploded and the custom appeared, "Qing Jia Lu" cited the Emperor Ming Tong Ji, saying: "the cover started from Yongle for ten years, and on the eve of the lunar new year, it was a diet of sugar balls and oil pancakes. In fact, the Lantern Festival had been fried at the latest to the late Tang Dynasty and the Five Dynasties. The collection of the allusions from the Sui and Tang Dynasties to the Five Dynasties in the Northern Song Dynasty was painted in the Qing Dynasty. This is steamed and stuffed. Qing Li Quan's "different things list" cited the "Jiang Biao Lu" said: "Yu Wen let the poison sugar, today's Yuanxiao Zi." Judging from the production method introduced by the Song Dynasty Department of health, "dough sticks", it is indeed like today's Lantern Festival: "use fine white glutinous rice flour and soup". The lock is made of molasses and bean paste, and cooked in oil. The difference between glutinous rice balls and oil is only the difference of curing methods.

Photo: the Peabody Isaacs Museum in the United States stores the scene of making Chinese lanterns with water polished paintings of Chinese customs and polished glutinous rice noodles.

In the Northern Song Dynasty, although there was a cooked dumpling in the Kaifeng Lantern Festival in the Northern Song Dynasty, the more popular one was oil eating. Jiao is oil. It is probably named after being burnt yellow. In the Northern Song Dynasty, Chen Yuanliang's "chew the coke" at the time of the year, cited the miscellaneous notes of the year, saying: "the capital festival in Beijing is the most prosperous and long." At that time, there was a special street selling oil: "big name, head coke". Whoever sells will sing the drum, and call it drum. Every time you put out a green umbrella on a bamboo stand, you put a plum red engraving gold lantern ball and a lantern around the bamboo frame. You should beat the drum and go round and round it. Row streets and lanes, everywhere. The drums and drums that are described here, and the sound of selling glutinous rice dumplings in the streets of later generations, "selling Tangyuan, selling glutinous rice balls, and a little Tang Yuanyuan and round" are all alike, full of festival spirit.

In addition to the "fried Lantern Festival", some places such as Hubei and Hankou also have "fried dumplings". But no matter "fried rice dumplings" or "fried dumplings", they were first popular in the south, while the North was basically "cooking the Lantern Festival". So in the past, people in the North felt very strange when they saw the fried lanterns or fried lanterns in the south.

 

Source: Beijing Evening News

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