How to balance the protection and utilization of cultural relics in Nanjing over 100 years?
On June 3, 2017, in the south of the golden Tang street in the Pukou District of Nanjing, near the track and viaduct, there was a small brick building with an outer wall of red brick, and an English building with a red steel colored tile roof. It was founded in 1911 and has a history of 106 years. In 2012, it was published as a cultural relic protection unit in Nanjing. However, such a building with a hundred years of historical memory has been destroyed recently, triggering a heated debate among netizens.
On the morning of 2 th, the Nanjing Pukou District Bureau of Canton and Guangdong Bureau officially imposed 200 thousand yuan on administrative penalties for the company, and requested it to restore damaged buildings according to the law. What kind of damage did this cultural building take? Why should the company involved be demolished and changed to cultural security building? How to balance the protection and utilization of cultural relics? The reporter conducted a field interview survey.
Scene: pull a courtyard wall, build a rockery, change doors, open windows.
In the morning of May 31st, after many twists and turns, reporters finally found the "British architecture" of "Pu Zhen railway station" hidden under the viaduct. Reporters at the scene saw that a rental house was occupied by a private house built in front of the house. The courtyard wall was built of brick and rubble, and a courtyard door was installed.
In the private building's courtyard wall, not only a rockery and an oval reservoir were not built with the British architecture, but also a paved trail was being paved along with a pile of yellow mud and some rubble bricks on the side. The construction traces were obvious.
"Here were originally two wooden doors with red paint, but now they were privately disassembled into grey wooden doors with glass." Upon entering the hospital, Fang Rui, deputy director of Wen Bao branch, Wen Guang Bureau of Pukou District, Nanjing, pointed to the door of the open room.
Reporters saw that the front door was not only changed, but the newly built walls on both sides of the door were in sharp contrast to the old walls. Fang Rui told reporters that the construction team also opened four windows privately.
Measured by the reporter, each window is about 1m wide, about 1.5m high and about 50cm deep. Among them, three windows were excavated through the original wall, and the other window was built by the construction team after blocking the back door of the original room.
There are still piles of cement bags and slates in the room, and two long small grooves have been dug up on the floor of the room. The measurements show that the two small trenches are about 14.6m long, about 20cm wide and about 15cm deep. Beside the ditch, there are still piled pipes.
In the afternoon, when reporters came to the scene again, they met three villagers nearby. A Zhao surnamed villager told reporters that they used to play near the building when they were young. "Now this is quite different from what we saw when we were young."
There is a housing lease contract, no alteration procedures.
So who is actually rebuilding the building? The reporter learned from the Nanjing Pukou District Wen Guang bureau that the bureau had received a report from the volunteers after being informed that someone had illegally reconstructed the cultural preservation building. After knowing the situation, they immediately let the construction team stop construction and carried out relevant investigation and evidence collection work.
According to the investigation, the site construction team was recruited by Nanjing Xiu Bi Culture Communication Co., Ltd. for the early stage scenery reconstruction of the film group. The reporter contacted the director Liu. According to Liu, he discovered this "old house" in March this year and found it very suitable for his movie theme. So he found the Nanjing Railway Development Group Co., Ltd., which is responsible for running the building, and asked Nanjing Xiu Bi Culture Communication Co., Ltd. to sign a lease contract with a term of one year.
"When we rent a house, we have told the show that the house is a heritage preservation unit. Any alteration plan should be informed to us and the relevant departments." A person in charge of Nanjing Railway Development Group Co., Ltd. told reporters that they had fulfilled their duty of disclosure beforehand.
The reporter looked at the rental contract signed by the two parties, and found that there were indeed second "second obligations" and eighth "other obligations of Party B". "Without Party A's consent, Party B shall not alter the structure of the house without authorization". "If Party B wants to decorate the house, the design must be examined by Party A and agreed by Party A before construction".
"This house is too broken, and the light transmission is poor. I want to remodel it." Director Liu told reporters that they also prepared related materials for approval. "At that time, I thought it was a small warehouse. I didn't think there was any problem with it before construction."
"The cultural relics department has not received any reconstruction plans in advance, nor is it aware of it." Fang Rui believes that the dramatic violation of the original status and structure of the museum is an obvious violation. If it is altered, it will not pass even if it is declared in advance.
How to balance the protection and utilization of heritage buildings?
On the morning of 2 th, the Nanjing Pukou District Bureau of public and Cultural Affairs formally decided to punish the company, fined 200 thousand yuan, and ordered it to restore damaged buildings according to the law.
Article twenty-sixth of the law of the People's Republic of China on the protection of cultural relics stipulates that the use of immovable cultural relics must abide by the principle of not changing the original status of the cultural relics, and shall be responsible for the protection of the safety of buildings and their ancillary cultural relics, and shall not damage, reconstruct, build or dismantle unmovable cultural relics. Yao Yuan, a Nanjing heritage preservation scholar, believes that the group has broken through its private windows and has changed the original status of the cultural relics. It should be punished according to the provisions of the law on the protection of cultural relics.
In recent years, the destruction of cultural relics caused by the shooting crew has occurred frequently. Yao Yuan said that the law on cultural relics protection did not prohibit the use of unmovable cultural relics because of film and television shooting. However, the protection of cultural relics must be the first. "Once the unmovable cultural relics are destroyed, it will be difficult to restore them even if they are repaired afterwards. The cultural relics have caused irreparable damage."
How to avoid such acts of destroying cultural relics? Yao Yuan suggested that we should first strengthen publicity and training for cultural property rights units and users, and enhance their awareness of law and protection of cultural relics. Secondly, the cultural relics department should strengthen supervision, conduct regular inspections, and identify problems as early as possible.
Liu Weidong, lawyer of Jiangsu FD Heng Heng law firm, suggests that when the use of cultural relics is changed, a good reporting mechanism should be established so that the cultural relics department can grasp the use of cultural relics in the area in time, and conduct targeted inspections and supervision.